Skip to Main Content

Primary Sources: European and North American Modern Art: Encyclopedias

About primary sources for modern art

Primary sources are materials in a variety of formats that serve as original evidence documenting a time period, an event, a work, people, or ideas.*  For modern art they include artist's writings, interviews, correspondence, as well as sketches, photographs and the work of art itself. 

Guidelines for Primary Source Literacy. Developed by the ACRL RBMS1-SAA2Joint Task Force on the Development of Guidelines for Primary Source Literacy, 2018

Encyclopedias & Dictionaries

Librarian / Research Help

Photograph of Barbara Prior, the Art Librarian



Schedule a Research Appointment

                                                                  Barb Prior (she/her)                            
Clarence Ward Art Library
Top Floor, Venturi Art Building
Email us at