“Fake news” is a term that has come to mean different things to different people. However, one thing is certain: fake news is NOT news that you disagree with!
We define “fake news” as news stories that are false, i.e., the stories are fabricated, with no verifiable facts, sources, or quotes. Sometimes these stories may be propaganda items that are intentionally designed to mislead the reader, or that may be designed as “clickbait” written for economic incentives (such as when the writer profits on the number of people who click on the story). In recent years, fake news stories have proliferated via social media, in part because they are so easily and quickly shared online. (Adapted from University of Michigan Library)
Both scholarly and peer-reviewed articles are written by experts in academic or professional fields. Scholarly articles are published in journals for specific academic disciplines. Many scholarly journals are also peer-reviewed.
Peer-reviewed articles are submitted to reviewers who are experts in the field. Because the reviewers specialize in the same scholarly area as the author, they are considered the author’s peers (hence “peer review”).
Both scholarly and peer-reviewed articles are excellent places to find what has been studied or researched on a topic, as well as find references to additional relevant sources of information.
Adapted and extended based on the definitions used by Melissa Zimdars' Open Sources project.
AllSides is a news website that presents multiple sources side by side in order to provide the full scope of news reporting.
The AllSides Bias Ratings page allows you to filter a list of news sources by bias (left, center, right).
AllSides uses a patented bias rating system to classify news sources as left, center, or right-leaning. Components of the rating system include crowd-sourcing, surveys, internal research, and the use of third-party sources such as Wikipedia and research conducted by Groseclose and Milyo at UCLA. Note that while the Groseclose & Milyo results are popular, the methodology it is not without critique.
INTERACTIVE Media Bias Chart by Vanessa Otero
The chart was created by Vanessa Otero, a patent attorney, who delivered a webinar to librarians on Information Literacy. Click on the chart below to go to an interactive and more recent version of Otero's Media Bias Chart. On version 5.0 (beta) users can search individual newspaper titles to see where they fall on the spectrum of liberal or conservative, based on Otero's/Ad Fontes Media's evaluation system.