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Writing & Citing: APA Style


APA style is widely used in the social sciences. Citations are created using both a detailed reference list appearing at the end of a paper and brief in-text citations that direct readers to particular sources from that reference list. 

APA Resources


  • APA in-text citations include the following elements in parentheses, separated by commas:
    • Author's last name
    • Publication year
    • Page number of the quoted or paraphrased material
  • The author's last name and publication year should match the last name and publication year given in the reference list. 
  • If an author's name is referred to in-text, it does not need to be repeated in parantheses. 

Journal Article

Gold (2012) notes that Edmonia Lewis created her Cleopatra sculpture for Centennial celebrations (p. 318). 

Edmonia Lewis carved the Cleopatra sculpture for the Centennial (Gold, 2012, p. 318). 


Morris (2014) argues that the great abolitionist schism of 1840 was less extreme in the west (p. 6). 

Even as eastern abolitionist groups split in 1840, western abolitionists tended to remain affiliated with multiple organizations (Morris, 2014, p. 6).