Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

A Guide to the Roderic C. Knight Musical Instrument Collection

Portal for learning about and accessing the images and metadata available in this collection hosted by CONTENTdm.

Chart

Overview of the Knight Revision of the Hornbostel-Sachs

(K-Rev) ©2015 Roderic Knight

IDIOPHONE MEMBRANOPHONE CHORDOPHONE AEROPHONE
Y1 Concussion M1 Struck C1 Variable tension A1 Ambient (Free)
   11  Plaque    11  One head, open    11  No neck       11  Slicing
   12  Bar    11.1  Vessel    12  Single neck    12  Beating (bull roarer)
   13  Dish    11.11  Cylinder    13  Forked neck    13  Whip (sonic boom)
   14  Vessel    11.12  Cone    
     11.13  Waisted C2 Musical bow A2 Blown
Y2 Struck    11.14  Barrel    21  Mouth resonated    21  Open
   21  Plaque    11.15  Goblet    22  Gourd resonated    21.1  Edge (flute)
   22  Bar    11.16  Vase      21.11  Vessel
   23  Vessel    11.17  (other shapes) C3 Pluriarc    21.111  No duct
     11.2  Frame      21.112  Duct
Y3 Stamped    11.21  Circular C4 Harp    21.12  Vertical
   31  Globe    11.22  Polygonal    41  Strings-over    21.121  No duct
   32  Tube    12 One head, closed    41.1  Forked    21.122  Duct
     12.1  Deep (vessel)    41.2  Spike    21.13  Oblique
Y4 Shaken    12.11  Cylinder    41.21 String holder    21.14  Transverse
   41  Vessel    12.12  Kettle    41.22 Bridge harp    21.2  Chamber-duct
   42  Sliding    12.13  Barrel    42  Strings in           21.21  Simple
   43  Solid    12.2  Shallow (frame)    42.1  Arched    21.22  Vented
   43.1  Sheet    13  Two heads    42.2  Angled      21.3  Corrugated pipe
   43.2  Spring    13.1  Vessel      21.31 Twirled
   44  Concussion    13.11  Cylinder C5 Zither    21.32 Blown
   45  Sympathetic    13.12  Cone    51  Stick or bar      21.4  Siren (pulsated)
     13.13  Hourglass    52  Tube     21.41 Disk
Y5 Scraped    13.14  Barrel    53  Raft    21.42 Fan
   51  Organic  (wood, gourd)    13.15 Angular Barrel    54  Board    22  Reed

   52  Manufact'd (metal, etc.)

   13.2  Frame    55  Box    22.1  Free (Hard)
         56  Trough    22.2  Beating (Soft)
 Y6 Friction   M2 Shaken    57  Harp zither    22.21 Normally open
     61  Solid    21  External strikers    58  Frame    22.211  Conical bore
     62  Vessel    21.1  Opp. hemispheres      22.211.1  Single reed
     21.2  Hourglass C6 Lute    22.211.2  Double reed
Y7 Plucked    21.3  Frame    61  Plucked    22.212  Cylindrical bore
   71  Frame    22  Internal strikers    61.1  One piece    22.212.1  Single reed
   72  Board                  61.2  Multi-part    22.212.2  Double reed
  M3 Friction     61.21  Neck attached    22.212.3  Free on pipe
   Y8 Blown     31  One head    61.22  Spike    22.213  Mouthpiece only
   81  Wood     32  Two heads    61.23  Half spike    22.22  Normally closed
   82  Metal      62  Bowed     22.221  Split or crushed
  M4 Sympathetic    62.1 One piece    22.222  Membrano reed
Y9 Deformed      62.2  Multi-part    22.3  Ribbon reed
   91  Diaphragm       62.21  Neck attached    23  Lip reed (trumpet)
   92  Blade      62.22  Spike    23.1  Narrow compass
          23.11  Fixed length
     C7 Lyre     23.12  Variable length
       71  Bowl    23.2  Wide compass
       72  Box    23.21  Fixed length
         23.22  Variable length
        
      A3 Plosive
         31  Closed
            32  Open