Art of this period is described a variety of ways: Northern European Renaissance, Early Netherlandish, Flemish Primitives, to name the most common. Likewise the geographic area covered can vary, and is complicated by the fact that national boundaries, and identities, do not always align with those of today. Generally Northern European Renaissance refers to art created in the 16th century in Russia and all northern European countries as far south as Romania, Hungary and Austria. France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the nations bordering the Baltic Sea are typically not included.
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