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Citation: Chicago Manual

Introduction

Chicago citation style is used primarily in the humanities, including art history, history, literature, and politics.  It may also be used in the sciences and social sciences.  Chicago style has two formats.

  • Notes and Bibliography style is preferred by the humanities.  Citations are provided in footnote or end notes and a bibliography
  • Author-Date style is preferred by the sciences and social sciences.  Sources are briefly cited within the-text using parentheses and the full details are provided in a works cited list.

Chicago Resources

Footnote / Endnote

In Chicago (Notes and Bibliography) style a note should be made anytime another work is directly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.  A corresponding note is used at the end of the sentence or clause in which the reference is used. It should include the following elements:

  • Author’s name as listed in the source
  • Title of the work (book)
    • Article title, Journal title, and Issue information (Journal)
  • Place and date of Publication
  • Page number
  • Use commas and parentheses to separate the elements

The first entry of the source should include full publication information; subsequent listings of the same source may be shortened to author’s last name, a shortened form of the title, and the page number of the cited passage.

Journal Article

  1. Susanna W. Gold, "The Death of Cleopatra /the Birth of Freedom: Edmonia Lewis at the New World's Fair," Biography 35, no. 2 (2012): 318.

Book

  1. , J. B Morris, Oberlin, Hotbed of Abolitionism: College, Community, and the Fight for Freedom and Equality in Antebellum America (The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 2014), 318.

Bibliography / Works Cited

In Chicago style the sources are listed alphabetically and include the following elements:

  • Author’s name (Last name, first name)
  • Title of the work (book)
    • Article title, journal title and issue information (Journal)
    • Page numbers of the article (Journal)
  • Place and date of publication
  • Use periods to separate the elements

Journal Article

Gold, Susanna W. "The Death of Cleopatra /the Birth of Freedom: Edmonia Lewis at the New World's Fair." Biography 35, no. 2 (2012) 318-341.

Book

Morris, J. B. Oberlin, Hotbed of Abolitionism: College, Community, and the Fight for Freedom and Equality in Antebellum America. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2014.

In-text

Sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name, year of publication and page number of source cited when following the Chicago Author-Date style. Full bibliographic information for each in-test citation is provided in a reference list.

Examples of the In-text citations and the corresponding reference list for a journal article and book..

(Gold 2012, 318)

(Morris 2014, 6)

Reference List

Gold, Susanna W. "The Death of Cleopatra /the Birth of Freedom: Edmonia Lewis at the New World's Fair." Biography 35, no. 2 (2012) 318-341.

Morris, J. B. Oberlin, Hotbed of Abolitionism: College, Community, and the Fight for Freedom and Equality in Antebellum America. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2014.