A MANUAL FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS — also known as “Turabian”— is the gold standard for college and graduate students in virtually all academic areas. An introduction to Chicago-style formatting and citation generation, the manual aids students in clear writing, citing, and research practice. At the heart of Turabian is the idea that, no matter the format, the foundations of good research remain the same: to do it carefully, present it clearly and accurately, and follow academic standards for citation, style, and format.
In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. This system is very flexible and can easily accommodate a wide variety of sources.